Treaty of Moscow (1920)

Peace Treaty,

concluded in Moscow on 7 May 1920,

between

the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic (RSFSR) and

the Democratic Republic of Georgia

The RSFSR and the Democratic Republic of Georgia, animated by a common desire to establish stable and peaceful relations between the two countries in order to assure the well-being of the people living therein, have decided to conclude for this purpose a special treaty and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries: the government of the RSFSR, Lev Mikhailovich Karakhan, Deputy People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs, and the government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, Grigorii Ilarionovich Uratadze, member of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia; who, having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:

Article I. Recognizing the principles proclaimed by the RSFSR concerning the right of all peoples to self-determination, including complete secession from the state to which they belong, Russia recognizes unconditionally the existence and independence of the Georgian state, and voluntarily renounces all sovereign rights which belonged to Russia with respect to the Georgian people and territory.

Article II. Recognizing the principles proclaimed in the preceding article I of the present treat3& Russia undertakes to refrain from any kind of interference in the internal affairs of Georgia.

Article III. I. The state frontier between Russia and Georgia, runs from the Black Sea, along the river Psou to Mount Akhakheha, passes over Mount Akhakheha and Mount Agapet, and continues along the northern frontier of the former Chernomorsk, Kutais, and Tiflis provinces to the Zakatalsk circuit and along the eastern boundary thereof up to the frontier of Armenia.

2. The summits of all mountains along this boundary line shall be considered neutral until January 1, 1922. They shall neither be occupied by troops of, nor fortified by, either of the contracting parties.

3. The neutralization provided for in Article 2 shall extend also the Daryal summit from Balty to Kobi, on the Mamison summit from Zaremag to Oni, and on all other summits for a distance of five versts on each side of the boundary line.

4. The exact determination of the state boundary between the two contracting parties shall be carried out by a special mixed boundary commission composed of an equal number of representatives of each party. The results of the work of this commission shall be confirmed by a special treaty between the two contracting parties.

Article IV. 1. Russia undertakes to recognize unconditionally as entering into the state of Georgia, in addition to those parts of the province of Chernomorsk transferred to Georgia in accordance with paragraph 1 of article 3 of the present treaty, the following provinces and regions of the former Russian Empire: Tiflis, Kutais and Batum with all districts and circuits forming the said provinces and regions, and, in addition, the circuits of Zakatalsk and Sukhum.

2. In accordance with the gradual development of mutual relations between Georgia and states other than Russia which exist or may be formed later, and which now border or may border on Georgia along boundary lines other than those described in the preceding article 3 of the present treaty, Russia undertakes to recognize, at a later date, as Georgian territory those parts of the former vice-royalty of the Caucasus which may be transferred to Georgia by agreements concluded with the above-mentioned formations.

Article V. Recognizing the justice of Russia’s request that within the territory of Georgia henceforth there shall not be permitted any military operations, the presence of military forces, or, generally, activities which may create within the territory of Georgia conditions likely to endanger Russia’s independence or to establish in Georgia a base of military operations directed against the RSFSR or against states allied with the latter, Georgia undertakes:

1. To disarm immediately or to intern in concentration camps all military and naval units which, at the time of signing this agreement, shall find themselves on the territory of Georgia, and also detachments or groups which pretend to be the government of Russia or of part of Russia, or the government of states allied with Russia, as well as representatives and officials, organizations and groups whose purpose is to overthrow the government of Russia or of allied states.

2. To disarm immediately and to intern all vessels anchored in the harbors of Georgia which form part of the military and naval forces and groups mentioned in paragraph I of the present article, or which for any reason have been at the disposal of those organizations and groups and are anchored at present in the harbors of Georgia. The provisions of paragraph I of this article shall be applied in full to the crews of those vessels.

3. To deliver to Russia free of charge, without request for compensation, and without exception, all military and naval property, valuables, and sums which shall be found in the possession, use, or at the disposal of the organizations and groups mentioned in paragraph I of this article and which, in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of the same article, have been transferred to Georgia.

By the terms of the present paragraph the following shall be considered as naval and military property: vessels and other floating units, all artillery, commissary (including food and equipment), engineering and aviation supplies.

4. To hand over to Russia, after their disarmament. all units, organizations, groups, and crews of the vessels mentioned in paragraph I of the present article.

Note: Russia undertakes to spare the life of all persons delivered to her under this article.

5. To take measures to deport from Georgian territory, as described in article 4 of the present treaty, all troops and military units which do not form a part of the government troops of Georgia.

6. To take measures against the admission into the territory as described in article 4 of the present treaty of all troops and military units which do not form a part of the government troops of Georgia.

7. To take measures against the admission into the territory of Georgia of troops and military units enumerated in the preceding paragraph 5 of the present article.

8. To forbid any person belonging to the units, organizations and groups enumerated in paragraphs I and 5 of the present article, in case such persons are not of Georgian nationality, to enlist in any capacity whatsoever, even as volunteers, in the government troops of Georgia.

9. Neither to permit henceforth any formation or existence on her territory, as described in article 4 of the present treaty, of any kind of organizations and groups pretending to be the government of Russia or a part of Russia, or the government of a state allied with Russia, nor to permit any representatives and officials of the organizations and groups having as their purpose the overthrow of the government of Russia or the government of states allied to Russia. Georgia also undertakes to prohibit any transportation through her territory by such organizations and groups of all material which may be used for attacking Russia or allied states as well as to prohibit vessels mid floating units belonging to such organizations and groups from remaining in Georgian ports and waters, with the exception of such cases as may be provided for by international law with regard to vessels in distress and the like.

10. In case such organizations, groups, representatives, or officials enumerated in paragraph 8 of this article should attempt to violate the measures therein,–these persons and their property, while subject to arrest or sequestration by the government of Georgia in accordance with the obligations which it has assumed in virtue of paragraph 8, shall be treated in conformity with the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 of this article.

11. The measures provided for in paragraph 5 of this article shall be carried out immediately after the signature of this treaty. Georgia promises to effect their execution within the shortest possible delay, not hesitating to employ armed force whenever necessary.

Article VI. Russia undertakes not to permit on her territory the sojourn or activities of any kind of groups and organizations pretending to be the government of Georgia or any part thereof, or of any kind of groups and organizations whose purpose is the overthrow of the government of Georgia. Russia undertakes to use all her influence with the states allied to her for the purpose of preventing any admission into their territories of groups and organizations mentioned in this article.

Article VII. In order to remove all possible misunderstandings, both contracting parties have agreed that in carrying out paragraphs 5 and 6 of article 5 of this treaty in those parts of Georgia which shall form part thereof as provided for in paragraph 2 of article 4 of this treaty after the delimitation of Georgia with neighboring states, except Russia, the necessary preventive Measures, on the part of Georgia, provided for in such cases, shall be carried out as soon as possible after she has formally asserted sovereignty over any of these territories.

Article VIII. A mixed commission composed of an equal number of representatives of both parties shall be established to supervise the exact fulfillment of articles 5 and 6 of this treaty, as well as to transfer and receive persons and properties mentioned in paragraphs 3 and 4 of article 5. The commission shall itself determine the order of procedure. The delivery and the reception of persons and property, in conformity with paragraphs 3 and 4 of articles 5 of the present agreement shall be completed within two months from the date of the signature of this treaty.

Article IX. 1. Persons of Georgian origin residing on Russian territory and having attained the age of eighteen are entitled to opt for Georgian citizenship. Similarly, persons of non-Georgian origin, residing on the territory of Georgia and having attained the age indicated, are entitled to opt for Russian citizenship.

2. The details concerning the procedure to be followed for carrying out the present article shall be confirmed by a special agreement between the two contracting parties.

3. Citizens of both contracting parties who desire to avail themselves of the rights granted them by the present article shall fulfill the required formalities within a year from the date on which the agreement mentioned in the preceding paragraph 2 of this article shall enter into force.

Article X. Georgia undertakes to exempt from punishment and from any further judicial or administrative prosecution all persons who were subject to such prosecution in Georgia for offenses committed in behalf of the RSFSR or of the communist party.

Note: Georgia undertakes to liberate immediately all persons under imprisonment for offenses as mentioned above.

Article XI. Each of the contracting parties undertakes to recognize and respect the flag and emblem of the other party as the emblem of a friendly state. The designs of the flags and emblems and modifications thereto, if any, shall be communicated mutually through diplomatic channels.

Article XII. Pending the conclusion of a commercial treaty between the contracting parties, for which purpose measures shall be taken as soon as possible, economic relations between Russia and Georgia shall be subject, temporarily, to the following general provisions:

1. Both contracting parties shall base their mutual commercial relations upon the principle of the most favored nation clause.

2. Goods whose origin or destination is one of the contracting parties shall not be subjected by the other party to any transit duties or taxes.

Article XIII. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of article 11 of the present treaty shall serve as a basis for the commercial treaty which is to be concluded between the two contracting parties, as provided in article 12.

Article XIV. Diplomatic and consular relations shall be established between Russia and Georgia as soon as possible. Pending the conclusion of a special convention between the contracting parties concerning the mutual status of their consuls, for which purpose measures shall be taken, the rights and duties of a consul shall be determined by the laws of each contracting party relating thereto.

Article XV. The settlement of questions of public and private rights arising between citizens of both contracting parties, as well as the settlement of certain special questions between the two states, shall be entrusted to special Russo-Georgian mixed commissions which shall be formed within the shortest possible delay after the signature of this treaty. The composition, rights, and duties of these commissions shall beset forth in separate instructions to be confirmed in the case of each commission upon mutual agreement of both contracting parties. Within the jurisdiction of these commissions, among other questions, fall:

1. Formulation of a commercial treaty and other economic agreements.

2. Settlement of questions concerning the distribution, from the former central institutions, of all archives, judicial and administrative records, deposits and acts of civil character.

3. Settlement of questions concerning the distribution, from the former central institutions, of all archives, judicial and administrative records, deposits and acts of civil character.

4. Settlement of the question concerning the method of utilization, the use, possession, and administration of the Batum-Baku petroleum pipeline with regard to that part of it which, as provided in article 4 of the present treaty, shall fall in Georgian territory. This question shall be confirmed later by means of a special agreement between the two contracting parties.

Article XVI. The present treaty enters into force automatically from the date of its signature and shall not require special ratification. In witness whereof the plenipotentiaries of the two contracting parties have signed the present treaty and affixed their seals thereto.

Done in two copies in Moscow, May 7,1920.
(Signed) L. Karakhan. (Signed) Gr. Uratadze.

Special Secret Supplement to the Agreement Between Russia and Georgia

Article I. Georgia undertakes to recognize the Tight of free existence and activity of all communist organizations throughout her territory, and in particular the right of free assemblies and free press (including press production).

In any case there shall be no judicial or administrative repression against private persons, as a result of public propaganda and agitation in behalf of the communist program or from the activity of persons and organizations working on a communist basis.

Article II. The present secret supplement shall form an integral part of the treaty signed on this date between Russia and Georgia. Similarly to the said treaty, this supplement enters into force automatically from the date of its signature and shall require no special ratification.

Done in two copies at Moscow, May 7, 1920.
L. Karakhan Gr. Uratadze.

Supplementary Agreement to the Treaty of Peace Between Russia and Georgia, Concluded on May 7. 1920

The undersigned, the representative of the RSFSR, Lev Mikhailovich Karakhan, Deputy People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs, and the plenipotentiary of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, Grigorii Ilarionovich Uratadze, member of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia, taking into consideration the fact that the Russian government has secured the preliminary approval of the government of the Azerbaijan Soviet Republic as concerns the contents of the articles which follow, have agreed as follows:

Article I. The question of contested localities situated on the frontier of Georgia and Azerbaijan and in the Zakatalsk circuit shall be submitted for settlement to a mixed commission composed of representatives of the government of Azerbaijan and Georgia in equal number, presided over by a plenipotentiary of the RSFSR. All decisions of this commission shall be recognized by Azerbaijan and Georgia as compulsory.

Article II. Pending the decision of the commission with regard to questions mentioned in paragraph 1 of this agreement, Georgia and Azerbaijan shall not send into the Zakatalsk circuit any troops in addition to those which were stationed there at the time of the signature of this agreement.

Article III. The present supplementary agreement shall be regarded as an integral part of the treaty between Russia and Georgia signed on May 7, 1920, in Moscow, and similarly to the said treaty, enters into force automatically from the date of its signature and shall not require special ratification.

In witness whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed the present treaty and affixed their seals thereto.

Done in Moscow in two copies, May 12,1920.
(Signed) L. Karakhan. Gr. Uratadze.

Source: Walter Russell Batsell, Soviet Rule in Russia (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1929), pp. 247-254.

Московский договор между РСФСР и Грузией, 7 мая, 1920 

Демократическая Республика Грузия с одной стороны и Российская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика с другой, руководимые общим желанием установить между обеими сторонами прочное и мирное сожительство на благо населяющим обе страны народов, решили заключить для сего особый договор и назначили для сего своими уполномоченными Правительство Демократической Республики Грузии – Члена Учредительного Собрания Грузии Григория Илларионовича Уратадзе и Правительство Российской Социалистической Федеративной Советской Республики – Заместителя Народного Комиссара по Иностранным Делам Льва Михайловича Карахана. Означенные уполномоченные, по взаимном осведомлении о своих полномочиях, признанных дающими перечисленным выше лицам право на подписание настоящего договора, согласились о нижеследующих статьях:

Статья I.

Исходя из провозглашенного Российской Социалистической Федеративной Советской Республикой права всех народов на самоопределение вплоть до полного отделения от Государства, в состав которого они входят, Россия безоговорочно признает независимость и самостоятельность Грузинского Государства отказывается добровольно от всяких суверенных прав, кои принадлежали России в отношении к грузинскому народу и земле.

Статья II.

Исходя из провозглашенных в предшествующей статье 1 настоящего договора принципов, Россия обязуется отказаться от всякого рода вмешательства во внутренние дела Грузии.

Статья III.

1. Государственная граница между Грузией и Россией проходит от Черного моря по реке Псоу до горы Ахахча, через гору Ахахча и гору Аганета и по северной границе бывших губерний Черноморской, Кутаисской и Тифлисской до Закатальского округа и по восточной границе этого округа до границы с Арменией.

2. Все перевалы на означенной пограничной линии до первого января тысяча девятьсот двадцать второго признаются нейтральными. Они не могут быть занимаемы войсками из обеих договаривающихся сторон и не могут быть ни одной из них укрепляемы.

3. На Дарьяльском перевале указанная в пункте 2 настоящей статьи нейтрализация будет распространена на протяжении перевала от Балты до Коби, на Мамисонском перевале от Зарамага до Они, а на всех прочих перевалах на пятиверстное в обе стороны от пункта прохождения границы расстояния.

4. Точное проведение государственной границы между обеими договаривающимися сторонами будет произведено особой смешанной пограничной комиссией с одинаковым числом членов от обеих сторон. Результаты работы этой комиссии будут закреплены в особом договоре между обеими договаривающимися сторонами.

Статья IV

Россия обязуется признать безусловно входящими в состав Грузинского Государства, кроме отходящих к Грузии в силу пункта 1 Статьи III настоящего договора частей Черноморской губернии, нижеследующие губернии и области бывшей Российской империи – Тифлисскую, Кутаисскую и Батумскую со всеми уездами и округами, составляющими означенные губернии и области, а также округа Закатальский и Сухумский.

Впоследствии, по мере выяснения взаимоотношений между Грузией и другими кроме России государственными образованиями, существующими или имеющими создаться и сопредельными с Грузией по другим границам, чем та, которая описана в предшествующей статье III настоящего договора Россия выражает готовность признать входящими в состав Грузии те или иные части бывшего Кавказского Наместника, которые отойдут к ней на основании заключенных с этими образованиями договоров.

Статья VII.

Для устранения возможных недоразумений обе договаривающиеся стороны согласились о том, что при выполнении пунктов 5 и 6 статьи V настоящего договора на тех частях территории Грузии, которые имеют войти в ее состав на основании пункта 2 статьи IV настоящего договора, после разграничения Грузии с другими кроме России сопредельными ей странами, необходимые предупредительные со стороны Грузии в подобных случаях меры должны быть закончены в кратчайший срок после принятия ею на себя формального осуществления государственного верховенства на той или другой из этих территорий.

Статья XVI.

Настоящий договор вступает в силу самим фактом и с момента его подписания и не будет подлежать особой ратификации.

В удостоверение чего уполномоченные обеих сторон собственноручно подписали настоящий договор и приложили к нему свои печати. Учинено в двух экземплярах в Москве, мая 7, дня тысяча девятьсот двадцатого года.

7 мая 1920 г.

Л. Карахан

Г. Уратадзе

 

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